1641 Rebellion

The Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup d'├ętat by Irish Catholic gentry, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland. However, the coup failed and the rebellion developed into an ethnic conflict between native Irish Catholics and the wave of Protestant settlers from England and Scotland. The conflict was known as the Irish Confederate Wars.

Anti-Catholic forces of the English Long Parliament and the Scottish Covenanters were defying the authority of the King Charles I. This led to the outbreak of the English Civil War and the rise of Oliver Cromwell.

When the rebellion broke out in October 1641, it was followed by several months of violent chaos before the Irish Catholic upper classes and clergy formed the Catholic Confederation in the summer of 1642. The Confederation became a de facto government of most of Ireland, free from the control of English administration and loosely aligned with the Royalist side in the English Civil War. The war continued in Ireland until the 1650s, when Oliver Cromwell decisively defeated the Irish Catholics and Royalists and re-conquered the country.