Tithes War

The Tithe War was a campaign of non-violent civil disobedience. It was punctuated by sporadic violent episodes, between 1830 and 1836, in reaction to the enforcement of tithes on subsistence farmers and others for the upkeep of the the Church of Ireland. Tithes were payable in cash or kind and payment was compulsory, irrespective of an individual's religious adherence.
The majority in Ireland were Catholic; yet they were still obliged to make these payments.

The first clash of the Tithe War took place on 3 March 1831 in Graiguenamanagh, County Kilkenny, when a force of 120 yeomanry tried to enforce seizure orders on cattle belonging to a Roman Catholic priest. In Bunclody, County Wexford, people resisting the seizure of cattle were fired upon by the Irish Constabulary, who killed twelve and wounded twenty; one yeoman was shot dead in retaliation. This massacre caused objectors to organise and use warnings such as church bells to signal the community to round up the cattle and stock. Resisting farmers at Carrickshock, County Kilkenny ambushed a detachment of 40 Constabulary. Twelve constables, including the Chief Constable, were killed and more were wounded. The conflict came to a head at Rathcormac, County Cork, when armed Constabulary reinforced by the regular British Army killed twelve and wounded forty-two during several hours of fighting when trying to collect a tithe to the value of 40 shillings.
Finding and collecting livestock and the associated mayhem created public outrage and proved an increasing strain on police relations. The government suspended collections. One official lamented that “it cost a shilling to collect tuppence”.
In 1838, the Tithe War ended when partial relief was granted, and the remaining portion was included as part of a tenant's rent. They were eventually ended completely by Gladstone's government when the Irish Church Act 1869 disestablished the Church of Ireland.